Conference Papers

  1. Pakistani State and Its Power Structure. Paper presented at the conference at Jamia Milia Islamia, ‘Re-making the State: Conflicts and Peace Processes in South Asia’, March 9-10, 2007.
  2. Baluchistan: A Crisis of Development. Paper presented at the seminar on ‘Why Baluchistan Matters’ organized by the Foreign Policy Center, UK at the House of Commons, December 04, 2006. The paper focused on the political economy of development in Baluchistan and in other parts of the world.
  3. Economic and Cultural Trends and Its Impact on Pakistan’s National Security. Paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Center Conference, Hawaii, April 16-18, 2001.
  4. Religious Extremism in Pakistan and Demand for Small Arms and Light Weapons. Paper presented at the Project Ploughshares Conference on ‘Small Arms and Light Weapons: The Demand Dynamics’ held in Toronto, March 14-17, 2001.
  5. Mercenary Soldiers in the Asia-Pacific. Paper presented at the meeting of the Third Expert Group of the UN on Mercenary Soldiers, Geneva, December 2004.
  6. Conventional Force Modernization Trends in South Asia. Paper written for the Asia-Pacific Center conference held on ‘Conventional Arms Rivalry in the Asia-Pacific,’ held at Honlolulu, Hawaii, October, 2001.
  7. Security Environment in South Asia: Need for Security Sector Reforms. Seminar paper delivered at the Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Shaheed Institute for Science and Technology (SZABIST), Karachi, October 10, 2001.
  8. Naval Arms Control in South Asia. Paper presented at the workshop on the ‘Indian Ocean’ organized by the Centre for Foreign Policy, Dalhousie University at Halifax, July 06-08, 2001.
  9. Maritime Environment in South Asian Waters – Setting the Scene. Paper presented at the first national conference to be held in Pakistan on ‘maritime security and confidence-building, May 22, 2001
  10. International Arms Market Trends and Third-Tier Manufacturers. Paper presented at the IDEAS-2000, Karachi, Nov. 14-17, 2000.
  11. Possibilities of Defense Conversion in Militaristic Societies: A Case Study of South Asia. Paper presented at the conference on ‘The Economics of Military Expenditure in Developing and Emerging Economies,’ Middlesex University Business School, London, March 13-14, 1998.
  12. Defense Procurement Decisions: A Case Study of Pakistan. Paper presented at the conference on ‘Converting Military Resources for Human Development’ organised by the Bonn International Centre for Conversion (B.I.C.C) at Bonn, Germany, 1997.
  13. South Asia: The Security-Development Imbalance and Defence Conversion. Paper presented at the workshop on ‘Security, Technology, Arms Control’ organised by the RCSS, Sri Lanka at Kandy, September 11-19, 1997.
  14. Fiscal and Public Policy Management Issues. Paper presented at the symposium on “Military Expenditure in Developing Countries: Security and Development” co-sponsored by the Canadian government and the Development assistance Committee of the OECD at Ottawa, Canada, March 18-19, 1997.
  15. Sustainable Reduction in Military Expenditure-Its Impact on Conflict Resolution in South Asia. Paper presented at the conference at the Department of International Affairs, Karachi University and Hanns Seidel Foundation, December 1-2, 1996.
  16. Treatment of Religious Minorities in South Asia: Case Studies of Christians, Ahmadis and Shias in Pakistan and Muslim in India. Paper presented at the 17th ‘ISODARCO’ conference on ‘ethnicity, racism and xenophobia,’ organised by the Italian Pugwash Group, International School on Disarmament and Research on Conflicts, in Italy held in August 1995.

Book Chapters

  1. Pakistani Madrassas. Ideological Stronghold for Saudi Arabia and Gulf States. In Christophe Jafferlot and Laurence Louer (eds), Pan-Islamic Connections. Transnational Networks Between South Asia and the Gulf. (to be published – Hurst, 2017).
  2. Mapping the Establishment. In Ishtiaq Ahmed and Adnan Rafiq, Pakistan’s Democratic Transition: Change and Persistence (Routledge Studies in South Asian Politics, 2016).
  3. Businessmen in Boots – Pakistan’s Entrepreneurial Military. In Zeinab Abul-Magd and Elke Grawert (eds.), Businessmen in Arms. (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016).
  4. Pakistan’s Modernism: A Hybrid Theocracy? In Shaun R. Gregory (ed), Democratic Transition and Security in Pakistan. (Routledge, 2016).
  5. Pervez Musharraf: Yet Another Dictator. Chapter contributed in Roger D. Long (ed), A History of Pakistan. (Oxford University Press, 2015).
  6. Pakistan’s Civil-Military Balance: The Fourth Round. Chapter contributed in Rajesh Basrur and Kartik Bommakanti (eds), Demilitarizing the State: South and Southeast Asian Experience. (Singapore: Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) Monograph No: 25, 2012).
  7. The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations in South Asia. In E. Sridharan (ed). International Relations Theory and South Asia. (Oxford University Press, 2011). A theoretical and comparative study of civil-military relations in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
  8. Can Non-Provocative Defense Work for Pakistan? In Navnita Chadha-Bahera (ed)., International Relations in South Asia: A Search for an Alternative Paradigm (Sage Publications, 2008). Pp. 235-251.
  9. The Development of Security Studies in Pakistan. In Inayatullah, Rubina Saigol and Pervez Tahir, (eds), Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile. (Islamabad: Council for Social Sciences, 2005). This was a UNICEF project.
  10. National Security, Democracy failure and Continuing Militarization of State and Society. Chapter in Militarizing State, Society and Culture in Asia. Critical Perspectives. (Hong Kong: Asian regional Exchange for New Alternatives (ARENA), 2005).
  11. Pakistan’s Military expenditure Decision-making Process. In Joern Brommelhorster (ed), Demystifying the Peace Dividend. (Nomos, Feb. 2000.
  12. Arresting Light Weapons Proliferation in Pakistan: Is There a Way Ahead? In Over a Barrel – Light Weapons & Human Rights. The Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative book, London, Nov. 1999.


1. The Pakistan military: searching for state and society.In Seminar, The Monthly Symposium from India. Issue on Pakistan titled ‘Decoding Pakistan’ #664, December 2014  

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2. Tea Leaves for Tanks. A Study of Trade Links, Peace and Perceptions in Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Iran. Paper for Centre for International and Strategic Analysis, Oslo. Report No. 28, December 2014.

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3. The New Frontiers: Militancy and Radicalism in Punjab. Paper for Centre for International and Strategic Analysis, Oslo. Report No. 2, 2013.

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4. Discovering Democracy.In Economic and Political Weekly,  48, Issue No. 17, 27 Apr, 2013 –  

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5. Pakistan’s Modernity: Between the Military and Militancy.In the Economic and Political Weekly,  46, Issue No. 51, 17 Dec, 2011Special Articles –

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6. Pakistan’s Counterterrorism Strategy: Separating Friends from Enemies.In ‘The Washington Quarterly, Vol 34, No. 1, Winter 2011.

7. TWQ: Pakistan’s Counterterrorism Strategy: Separating Friends from Enemies.In The Washington Quarterly, Winter 2011.

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8. Red Hot Chilli Peppers Islam – Drivers of Radicalism Amongst Muslim Elite.Paper published by the Heinrich Boll Stiftung, 2010.

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9. Jihadism in Pakistan: The Expanding Frontier.In the Journal of Internationl Affairs, (Columbia University Press, Fall/Winter 2009, Vol 43, No. 1). Pp. 57-72

10. Pakistan – Between Military and Militants.In World Today,the journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in April 2007.

11. Pakistan-Iran-Afghanistan Relations: Looking Beyond the Troubled Triangle.Middle East Program Occasional Paper series, Spring 2005 (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars).

12. Pakistan Army to reduce numbers.In Jane’s Defence Weekly, May 05, 2004.

13. Pakistan’s Security: Problems of Linearity.In South Asian Journal, January–March, 2004.

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14. US offers non-Nato Ally status to Pakistan.In Jane’s Defence Weekly, March 24, 2004.

15. Is Missile Non-Proliferation a Possibility in South Asia?Paper published in the South Asian Survey, 11/2, July-December 2004.

16. Political Economy of National Security.In the Economic and Political Weekly, November 2-9, 2002

17. Can Pakistan Turn Around?In the Journal of Asian Affairs, ISSN1607-0631, June 2002. The article looks at the possibility of reduction in religious extremism in Pakistan and the role of the state in achieving the objective.

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18. Political Economy of National Security. In The Economic and Political Weekly37, No. 44/45 (Nov. 2-15, 2002), pp. 4545-4549

19. Pakistan’s Defence Industry: Shifting Gears.In RUSI Journal, October 2001.

20. Governance in Plural Societies and Security: An Overview.RCSS Policy Paper 19, May 2001.

21. Defense Expenditure in South Asia: India and Pakistan.RCSS Policy Studies Paper 12, (2000)

22. Pakistan’s Military Rule.In the journal of the European Institute of Asian Studies, May 2000

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23. South Asia: Nuclear Navies? – September 01, 2000

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24. Development of Indigenous Weapons Production in Pakistan: Impact on the Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises. KAF working paper series. (Lahore University of Management Sciences, 2000).

25. Pakistan’s Defense Industry: An Effort Towards Self-Reliance?In the Journal of Defense and Peace Economics, University of York, Vol. 10, 1999.

26. Curbing the Weapons of Civilian Destruction in South Asia.Joint paper published by the International Center for Peace Initiatives, Mumbai, India, 1999. This paper aimed at drawing attention of the policy community, in particular parliamentarians, in South Asia to the issue. The project is planned in tune with the role of ICPI as a bridge between research actions and policy actions.

27. Prospects of Russia-CIS-Pakistan Security Dialogue.Paper published in Yaderny Control, a journal of the Institute of Policy Research in Russia, April 1998. The research focused on conventional arms transfers.

28. Ad hocracy and Decision-Making in Pakistan: A Case Study of Defence Production Projects and the Nuclear Programme.In the Indian Defence Review, August 1996.

29. Kashmir: The Jama’at-i-Islami Factor.In Defence Today, India September/November, 1995.

30. China-Pakistan Military Links, 1979-Present.In Defence Today, India: Vol. 3(2), July/September, 1995.

Jane’s Defence Weekly

  1. Pakistan test fires missiles, October 15, 2003
  2. Is the US-Pakistan honeymoon over?, January 15, 2003
  3. Pakistan Army inducts Ghauri, January 15, 2003
  4. Pakistan awaits India’s next move, November 06, 2002
  5. Pakistan and the USA revive joint exercises, October 30, 2002
  6. Pakistan conducts second missile test, October 16, 2002
  7. Pakistan’s export plans face major hurdles, March 27, 2002.