Many years ago, during the mid-1980s, I remember a conversation with the great Urdu writer Ashfaq Ahmed. He was then the director-general of the Urdu Science Board in Lahore and had begun his journey towards religion and Sufism. I was keen to know what young people could do when public intellectual icons had sold their souls to dictatorial regimes. Perhaps I sought to understand how, intellectually, a society was prepared for greater and deeper feudalism/tribalism. What I am referring to here is a normative issue rather than a structural problem.